Given the confusion over previous adjustments in Vatican policy toward Islam, other steps should be quickly taken to clarify the church’s program. The cultural dialogue Pope Benedict envisioned in assigning Muslim dialogue to the Pontifical Council for Culture should be advanced by those in his service who are skilled in Islamic relations. Likewise, the church’s charitable and social work among Muslim populations ought to be used as an occasion for genuine dialogue. In addition, the need for reciprocitythat is, equality of treatment of Christians living in Muslim countriesshould be pursued in bilateral and multilateral forums, and constructive work with moderate Muslims to oppose violence publicly in the name of religion should continue. Finally, at every step, church leaders need to take care that observers do not misrepresent the church’s initiatives as part of a war on Islam or a clash of civilizations.